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external PC (see "Manual Remote Control via an External Controller"). Manual and remote control of the R&S AFQ are described in separate chapters. una opción sharing para invitar a alguien a controlar el escritorio de nuestro Una vez finalizada la instalación y configurado nuestro equipo como. El segundo mes lo utilicé para seguir con HackTheBox así como para repasar que tenemos el control del registro EIP por otro la idea es hacer que el. CITRIX GREEN SCREEN

Visual summary of the key competences and subjects in the Catalan curriculum After this necessary clarification, let us focus on how Media Literacy has been incorporated into the new Catalan curriculum at two levels: competences see top part figure 1 and subjects see bottom part figure 1.

As shown in figure 1, one of the eight key competences is named the Linguistic and Audiovisual competence. This competence contains two dimensions: the linguistic and the audiovisual. The linguistic dimension, is thoroughly dealt with in the Language subject, but this is not the case of the audiovisual dimension.

The starting point was to define the four dimensions of the audiovisual competence. It was done by reading reference articles1 and by analysing two Catalan projects2 previously carried out. Dividing media competence into four dimensions is a methodological procedure that aids to structure and sequence the analysis. Nevertheless, the powerful relationship between them is obvious.

In the end, considering the aforementioned and also the main objectives of the other key competences closer to the audiovisual one Artistic and Cultural and Digital the dimensions for media competence are: a Media Literacy codes and media representation: basic knowledge of audiovisual codes and their inherent narrative structures. Learning the code of fixed and moving images in combination with words, images, sound and text.

After reading the official curricula, the first thing we did was to search for all lexical words referring to the Media Literacy field and the audiovisual dimensions1, such as media, television, verbal and non verbal languages, audiovisual language, codes, ICT, etc. After that, we identified all the statements in the Catalan curricula for Primary and Secondary that corresponded with some of the four dimensions described above.

Finally, all the information was organised in grills. While analysing texts, we realized that there were a few audiovisual contents referring to the first three dimensions, mainly, in the Language and Arts subjects.

On the contrary, there was a lack content for the last dimension that is Ideology and Values. Let us stop here a minute to comment on this dimension, as it happens to be among the ones we have fully developed for the curriculum. In addition, this dimension also obtained very low results in the aforementioned study about the degree of media competence of Spanish citizenship.

The sixth and seventh conclusions 83 reveal citizens have great ignorance of why and how an audiovisual message influences and impacts on viewers. Moreover, they neither detect the values and ideologies that emerge from audiovisuals. If we want a democratic society, it is essential that all citizens are aware of the ideological, emotional and persuasive power of audiovisual messages as well as the effects they have on us.

Thirdly, once established the discourse and content analysis, an objective for every dimension was gradually written for primary and secondary, so the Audiovisual competence starts at first course of primary and ends at last course of secondary, it takes a total of ten years. Due to the competence concept, it has to be developed gradually during all compulsory education.

Once the elements for discourse and content analysis had been established, an objective for each of the four dimensions was written, for both primary and secondary. It meant a gradual incorporation of the Audiovisual competence throughout the 10 years of compulsory education, starting off the first year of primary and ending the last year of secondary.

In fact, these objectives work as sub-competences of the Audiovisual competence as the action verbs heading each chart indicate. Such verbs, which are detailed in chart III, summarise an important part of the general competence. Chart III, in next section, contains the completed objectives.

Chart II. Audiovisual competence dimensions and heading action verbs for primary and secondary objectives or sub-competences increasing difficulty Dimensions Objectives for Primary Objectives for Secondary Media Literacy codes and Exploring and getting to Identifying and using verbal! Media Literacy Understanding and Understanding and comprehension to improve interpreting! Media Literacy production to Elaborating simple and Elaborating audiovisual reflect upon the process and audiovisual productions of products of varied context!

Ideology and values, socio- Getting to know the working Becoming aware of the historical impact and of the media and the ICT impact of media and ICT influences from media onto social impact upon messages! In brief, Media Literacy contents appear, textually, in both the Audiovisual Competence and mostly in two traditional subjects in the Catalan curriculum. It means that Media Literacy goes across curriculum in two complementary levels competences and subjects.

Nevertheless, some contents are missing and therefore, given the little information in the syllabuses, it is very hard for teachers to implement Media Literacy. Consequently, a development of the key competences, especially of the Audiovisual one, is required in order to help teachers undertake projects which apply competences in their daily programmes.

In fact, the presence of Media Literacy in the Catalan curriculum programmes is no different from that of the previous Catalan curriculum1. For these reasons, caution is needed. The presence of the Audiovisual competence at a textual level is a necessary step, but does not guarantee its actual implementation in everyday teaching practice.

A detailed syllabus for the Audiovisual competence in primary and secondary. A realistic approach to integrate key competences At the beginning of the previous section we outlined how unfortunate it was for the Spanish and Catalan Governments to submit the new curricula based on competences following a subject structure -that is divided into objectives, contents and evaluation criteria- missing out the most important part of the work, namely the development of sequencing of each competence.

This was precisely the task we set out to accomplish for media competence and what we are going to detail in this paper. For a period of six months, all the members worked intensely at two levels: individually and also in groups of discussion. At these meetings, the general objectives for each competence to be developed were agreed on. The aim was to avoid overlappings. Later on, each of us individually outlined and defined the contents according to the dimensions of each competence from the contents described in the curriculum.

In some cases, such as those of the Digital competence, Learning to learn and Autonomy and Self Initiative, most of the competence contents had to be added on as it was being developed. In the requested document was delivered and waited and waited, but as elections to a new Government were round the corner, no reply was given. The project has three strong points. The first one is that each competence has been developed and sequenced by stages and levels following a subject structure.

This implies that all teachers, whichever subject they teach, have at their disposal a vast and sequenced information to manage key competences, which becomes particularly useful when it comes to the arduous task of programming. The second one has to do not only with the conceptual frame of the competence teaching and learning but, especially, with the methodological approach used, sequencing and phrasing contents and evaluation criteria following a competence approach, which means including concepts, procedures and attitudes.

See examples in charts IV and V. The third one is that the development of each key competence stems from its own competencial frame and is balanced attending the described contents for all subjects, avoiding repetitions and including the missing information. Therefore, the proposal could not be neither implemented nor copied elsewhere without being adjusted again. In order to illustrate the aforementioned development, chart III contains the Audiovisual competence dimensions and objectives for primary and secondary, from which contents and evaluation criteria raised.

Charts IV and V are two examples of the curricular development for the Audiovisual competence in 1st level of primary and secondary objective, dimension, content and evaluation criteria. Chart III. Audiovisual competence dimensions and objectives for primary and secondary in the Catalan curriculum2 Main objectives for primary Main objectives for secondary Focus: Media Literacy codes and media representation 1.

Exploring and getting to know the 1. Identifying and using verbal, non verbal and possibilities offered by codes and narrative audiovisual communicative languages in an structures of audiovisual language through integrated way through analysis and experimenting and analysing media texts so production of texts in school languages so as as to become aware of the constituent to express personal opinions and elements in audiovisual messages and the conceptions, interiorising them and differences between reality and its media transmitting cultural knowledge and social representation.

Focus: Media Literacy comprehension to improve critical analysis 2. Understanding and interpreting audiovisual 2. Understanding and interpreting media texts texts from the media, the ICT and other by different media supports through analysing sources by using analysis guidelines on form their communicative structure attending the and context so as to read them in a critical aim and intention of the message so as to and creative way.

Focus: Media Literacy production to reflect upon the process and agent producers 3. Elaborating simple and audiovisual productions of different types, guidedly or 3. Elaborating audiovisual products from autonomously, through sequencing the varied contexts in a reflexive and creative way process and using different languages and through using different languages and textual supports with the aim to express and types of media and ICT with the aim to better communicate messages to the situation, transmit curricular contents as well as reflect individually or in group, so as to reflect upon upon the production process.

Focus: Values and ideology. Socio-historical impact and influences from media onto citizenship especially on social and cultural stereotypes 4. Getting to know the working of the media 4. Becoming aware of the impact of media and the ICT social impact upon citizenship and ICT messages on some daily situations through reflecting on elaboration, production, through varied content analysis so as to broadcasting and interpreting messages on promote a responsible and critical different supports and contexts so as to consumption.

Chart IV. Example of the curricular development for the Audiovisual competence in 1st level of primary objective, dimension, content and evaluation criteria. Objective 1 for primary: Exploring and getting to know the possibilities offered by codes and narrative structures of audiovisual language through experimenting and analysing media texts so as to become aware of the constituent elements in audiovisual messages and the differences between reality and its media representation.

Dimension: Media Literacy codes and media representation Contents Evaluation criteria Comparing features coming from real products with others coming from advertisements, especially colour, size, Distinguishing the real world and its texture, use, etc. Comparing fiction cartoons and comic characters to real people. Chart V.

Example of the curricular development for the Audiovisual competence in 1st level of secondary objective, dimension, content and evaluation criteria. Objective 1 for secondary: Identifying and using the basic elements that configure the codes in verbal, non verbal and audiovisual communicative languages in an integrated way through analysis and production of texts in school languages so as to express personal opinions and conceptions, interiorising them and transmitting cultural knowledge and cater for individual and social abilities.

Analysing in detail the different informative codes in audiovisual messages: word, text, Describing all the elements present in icon elements, sound and music. Describing narrative, persuasive and informative their role in the global understanding of the messages in the media attending their message so as to cater for individual and communicative goal.

Final conclusions New guidelines in European educational policies add key competences in curricula so that students became citizens better trained for life. Comparing it within the Catalan official curriculum media competence is more explicit in the Catalan document than in the European one, where it is merely outlined. Apart from that, in the Catalan curriculum Media Literacy appears at two complementary levels: a Media Literacy is widely related to the Linguistic and Audiovisual competence, so it is dealt with across curriculum as a part of a key competence; b Media Literacy contents mostly appear on two traditional subjects: Language and Art, that means across subjects.

Particularly for Media Literacy, we defend the idea to include a subject in compulsory school according to the European Parliament resolution of 16 December on Media Literacy in a digital world. Deficient trials of integrating Media Literacy in the curricula the past, and the fact that the new competences have not yet been fully developed, put forward that specific contents and explanations are still needed to achieve media education.

In order to guarantee the incorporation of key competences into the Catalan curriculum, a detailed syllabus has been developed, especially for those without subjects closely related to them. The proposal, requested by the Government in , is a useful tool as it is sequenced and detailed the same way as traditional subjects, into stages and levels, so as to introduce Media Literacy contents across curriculum.

This is a first step to move on, but it is not enough. From an educational point of view, as the referenced Spanish report on media competence concluded , data corroborates what professionals in media education had long empirically verified. True Media Literacy implies the compromise and coordination of all agents involved in education —syllabuses, teachers initial and continuous training and families-.

Education is the key to be able to change the disappointing results obtained. In this sense, the autonomous community of Catalonia has taken a step forward introducing the media competence along with the linguistic one, from a communicative perspective of reception-production, as well as the curricular development of such key competence for primary and secondary education.

But this alone does not guarantee the presence of Media Literacy in classrooms. Teacher training in Media Literacy is essential to enable the incorporation of Media Literacy into daily teaching practice from two perspectives: the pedagogical and the epistemological one. Only when teachers are able to apply acquired knowledge in a competential framework into daily practice, Media Literacy will be present in classrooms.

This requires teacher training and time. The MIL states that: Teachers are more likely to embrace the MIL curriculum if it connects with pedagogical strategies that improve how they teach traditional school subjects. Fostering the changes in the education sector that would result from the introduction of MIL and their impact on teacher professional development are important goals of this curriculum and competency framework.

Little by little, educational policies seem to favour the different agents involved in the process: curriculum, teachers and families. Thesis written in Catalan. In: A. Zabala coord. Proposta de desplegament curricular. Proyecto Mediascopio Prensa.

La lectura de la prensa escrita en el aula. European Commission. Comunicar Grupo. Media Literacy. Belgium: European Communites. In: D. Mapping Media Education Policies in the World. Visions, programmes and challenges. Media and Information Literacy. Curriculum for Teachers. Rethinking context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. In: Gillespie, M and Toynbee, J ed. Analysing Media Texts. Barcelona: Generalitat de Catalunya. The European Union. Audiovisual and Media policies The European Charter for Media Literacy The main objectives of this experience were the collective Empowering of women through the use of ICT and the recovery of historical memory.

To develop the training process the researchers have chosen to use the feminist participatory action research methodology, IAPF Feminist participatory action research methodology. This methodology facilitates the production of knowledge and generates a set of actions useful to a specific group of individuals.

This empowers participants to use their self-generated knowledge in the pursuit of learning. Learning defined as the process of taking in the world around you and making sense of it Johnston, IAP is a process that simultaneously includes training, scientific research and political action.

It also considers critical analysis, diagnosis and practice situations as sources of knowledge, while allowing the empowerment of people in society who are actively involved in the research process. IAP involves the popularization of research techniques, with the dual role of the object, as a subject and protagonist.

The emphasis of these workshops was on co-inquiry, thus empowering the women involved to generate their own knowledge through their own experiences. The impact of experiences not just reflections stresses the value of the feminist perspective of the issues discussed. Introduction This project has been established in the town of Pamplona, Norte de Santander, with women in the municipal associations representing the lower middle economic strata and who reflect the status of an important part of the society studied.

Pamplona is a city in the Municipality of Norte de Santander, its land area is km2. The urban area of the city has been classified as capital of the Southwestern province of the Municipality, in recent decades urbanization has incorporated rural to urban areas.

In rural areas the average earnings are lower than those prevailing in urban areas. In recent years the situation has worsened. There is low productivity and by consequence work in rural areas is poorly paid. Many have problems accessing social services. These areas are also characterised with poor health and high illiteracy rates and school dropouts. Through women's associations present in the territory, we wanted to approach a part of the population that is particularly affected by inequalities, whether educational levels, access to resources and development opportunity.

We wanted to approach women to meet and discuss their experiences and life stories, to transmit knowledge and alternative visions of reality. Context of study The spread of neoliberal policies economic liberalization, fiscal adjustment, reduction of economic and social role of the state, labour flexibility in many South American countries has resulted in increasing poverty and hunger, unemployment and underemployment, the privatization of basic social services and increasingly difficult access to them by the majority of the population.

In Colombia the situation was further complicated with the escalation of armed conflict. While it is undeniable that in recent years, Colombian society has made significant changes and advances in many sectors of society, in the complex social and political context outlined above, the situation of women has been noticeably affected. The deterioration in the provision and access to basic social services and rising unemployment and underemployment has been persistent features of this South American country.

Similarly, there was an increase internal displacement and to neighbouring countries, particularly among women Ahumada, Colombia is characterized by a large gap between legal regulations and the socio-political realities. In such a context the commitment to influence the realities that characterise a large sector of Colombian society, in particular the realities of women at all levels, educational, economic and health makes it difficult to accomplish.

This paper reports the initial outcomes of a project which proposes an educational practice that aims at empowering women to become agents of change in their reality, they themselves set the priorities to be taken into account when designing actions aimed to improve conditions in Colombian society. This project focused on women who suffer the consequences of an unequal distribution of resources and inadequate provision or in some cases absence of educational services.

Such women are often permanent members of the informal employment sector with the consequences that this has on their entitlement for social services. These women are often victims of domestic violence. According to journal Legal Medicine in there were 61, victims of domestic violence and 37, ICT in Colombia The so-called "Knowledge Society" presents great challenges to any country, but in developing countries the challenges are much greater.

These countries have many obstacles to overcome, such as poverty, social inequality, low educational provision, scarce health services, lack of employment opportunities and insufficient housing. Developing countries are still struggling with such issues. Currently, Colombia records serious disparities in access to Information Technology and Communication. The country still struggles with providing sufficient educational provision to its population and provision of basic telecommunication infrastructure.

Among the most notable causes are the apparent poverty and inequality of income amongst the population. Although the country has recorded some improvement in the educational sector, the educational level of the population, when compared to North America, is still low, in particular in the rural areas of the country.

Acts such as low electricity coverage in the country, school dropouts and the number of computers per student, shows the gap between rural and urban. The concentration of wealth and the distribution of the same structural facts are configured as a complement explaining the low penetration of ICT in the country.

Statistical analyses clearly show a positive relationship between income and the use and exposure to ICT. ICT has been introduced in Education but ICT is not considered as a essential tool for empowering low-income sectors of the society in accessing the labour market. Often the only relationship between these projects and ICT is the use of the Internet.

National policies identified for promoting sustainable development and the fight against poverty, are far from reaching the aim of empowering communities. Very often these projects are distinctively occasional, scattered and fragmented in nature, commonly with short-term objectives Finquelievich, et al, Initiatives in ICT and Gender are scarce; with those found mostly offering social assistance and training for traditional jobs to women with low economic means.

Very few initiatives relate to the need to apply new ICT tools for changing the labour market. Programs aimed at the promotion and dissemination of ICT rarely take into account gender issues. ICT training as a strategy of empowerment Our commitment to encourage the creation of new knowledge, to conduct research from a gender perspective and use new approaches and support innovative initiatives, has directed our action to promote women's empowerment through the use of information technology and communication as an innovative tool for this achievement.

As seen, ICT can contribute to improving the status of women in various sectors, such as fighting poverty with new employment opportunities and marketing of products, or through training and information, combating gender violence, through the transmission of knowledge. Our proposed intervention for the Empowerment of women's collective social associations in the municipality of Pamplona is based on a course in computer literacy and the recovery of historical memory.

Such a proposal leads us to consider necessary to start up work on memory, a ransom of the life stories of each woman. Through awareness of the abuses, whether in private relationships, or in the social context that many women have suffered and continue to suffer, they are encouraged to tell their life stories thus conveying their testimony and prevent further perpetuation of abuse.

By writing and reading ones own experiences from a gender perspective one can foster awareness, construct a new position in front of their realities and stimulate new attitudes to the difficulties. While we strongly believe in the importance of rescuing the positive experiences of women, so they do not create or convey exclusive models as victims, we also believe in the need for women to expose themselves to their realities as victims of cultures and men, victims especially of a patriarchal culture.

Why is ICT used as a tool for empowerment? The empowerment of women in relation to Information Technology and Communication, involves improving the skills, knowledge, access and use of ICT. This definition includes a strategic objective referred to increasing the participation and access of women to expression and decision-making in and through the media and information technologies and communication. The relationship of both concepts- ICT-empowerment, as Aguado, Escofet and Rubio pointed out, is understood from two perspectives: a ICT as a vehicle of social empowerment.

The idea behind this approach is that ICTs can be a major catalyst for social and political empowerment of women and to promote gender equality. There is recognition of the potential of technology as a vehicle to achieve or improve gender equality. This perspective refers to the level of access, use, competence and attitude towards ICT. It is a process rather than a strategy, so there can be no development agencies to empower women, but it must be they who empower themselves.

Thus, autonomy, mastery, control, decision-making and freedom to choose are essential aspects in the study of empowerment Aguado, Escofet, Rubio, In the context of our area of study, we believe that reinterpreting life stories from the perspective of gender will help women to overcome barriers created between them and the machines and start the effective process of empowerment. These barriers are consequences of insufficient training and cultural stereotypes, traditions, norms and institutions that impose gender relations.

Such barriers withstand the subordination and discrimination of women in the field of technology. Traditionally women are considered as technophobes and have a passive attitude towards technology. While it is indeed true that there are some barriers real or subliminal that inhibit or impede access to new technologies by women we believe that this can be overcome.

Statistics regarding access to ICT in developed countries in Latin America and the Caribbean indicate that the digital gender gap is virtually disappearing Bonder, Methodology For the development of this training process we have opted for the Feminist participatory action research methodology IAPF. This methodological option takes into account the following assumptions: 1 The commitment to social change: the explicit intention of the research is part of a process of social change and non discriminatory 2 Valuing and respecting all subjectivities that are involved, explicitly or implicitly, in the research process 3 The development of a critical thinking process that is essential to any research process.

Through critical thinking the process is put into question and problematized. This will help demonstrate its features and limitations. The Feminist Participatory action research has as an objective the actions to produce knowledge useful for a group of people and to empower women through the process of building and using their own knowledge. Empowerment and training is given by the leading and active participation of all team members, including the researcher in the research process and the teaching-learning, which is generated through the generated research.

Another advantage inherent in participatory action research methodology is the strengthening of the creative and critical skills in the participants who apprehend their reality and find new answers to the dilemmas that it proposes everyday. In this sense it is intended that participants redefine their experience and that of others, so that their learning is contextualized in daily life and adjusted to the peculiarities of their development.

Objectives of the training process 5. General objective The process aims to train women's associations in the municipality of Pamplona in the use of ICT as a tool of empowerment in relation to the perception of themselves and for the recovery of historical memory.

This is done through the collection of personal dossiers images and texts. The workshop participants themselves proposed to delve into the contents of computer management, to make them feel more comfortable and motivated. The theme was chosen was the recovery of historical memory.

There were 31 women participating in the workshops with an average age of 55 years. Most participants were either unemployed with a very meagre social support allowance or employed in small firms. Of the 31 women who participated in the workshops, 16 were enrolled in primary school, 4 were enrolled in secondary school and 11 had reached the baccalaureate level.

All the women carried out domestic work and took care of the family unaided by their spouses. Of the 31 women, 20 were heads of their household because the husband had abandoned them and left them unaided taking care of their children. Data Collection To collect the data, we have used different instruments. The first instrument was the use of a questionnaire to collect personal data and data regarding the level of digital literacy.

This helped the researchers tailor the workshops to the needs of the participants. It also helped organize the logistics and methodology of the training process. A second instrument, fundamental in identifying the specific needs of women, has been the focus groups. This activates the process of empowerment. Through a critical and constructive dialogue they have questioned the development models that had prevailed in the society and which in one or other women were invisible.

They have introduced concepts such as patriarchy, gender, women's rights and discrimination. Another data collection instrument was the semi-structured interview. The interviews were conducted in the same environment where women develop their daily life and this has helped to build trust and comfort. The semi-structured interview focused on the collection of the expression of women participating in the workshops around a flexible general script built from the evaluation questions the interview guide.

In the evaluation of the data this instrument was most used. In our case this has served to cross the information gathered during the focus groups and finally collect the results of our workshops. The interviews have been conducted with a small number of the women who participated in the workshops, at the discretion of the subject-type sampling we consider appropriate. All interviews were done in person. We used the camcorder for recording, after asking permission from the participants.

A final technique used to ask all participants to write their life story. This has served to make the women reflect on their experiences in the light of new concepts such as dignity, equality of opportunity, patriarchal oppression, gender roles, and also to help them recover the memory of their experiences. Throughout the whole process of training, the trainers made direct observations of the progress, constraints and obstacles encountered by women in their efforts to learn the basic use of ICT, which builds the systematization of pedagogical process.

Throughout the process interesting dynamics were created and as a result a change in the attitudes of women who participated in the workshops was registered. For such change to occur a great deal of encouragement was given by the trainers and the group. Thanks to the support and the dialogic nature of the workshops, women gained a new awareness of the value that society places on their role and contribution outside the private sphere.

Another important aspect is that of cooperation. In the field of group dynamics, women rediscover their willingness to help and cooperate with other members of the team, which in this particular context, is accepted and recognized and makes learning much faster and more pleasant. An important feature observed during the workshops was the renewed value and importance given to the tradition of women, their cultural heritage and experience, social skills and cultural traditions.

The incidence in the latter has been crucial in learning how to use ICT to treat the various topics discussed during the workshops. Improvement in their Computer Skills The initial impetus of the digital literacy workshops has been the general lack of knowledge of computer use and Internet surfing. At the end of the training process each woman has acquired skills to use word processing, create folders to store documents, scan photos, surf the net, write and send an email.

The basic knowledge gained by all participants in the workshops has served not only to eliminate the barriers between these women and ICT, but also to stimulate the desire to continue learning in this area. Recovery of Historical Memory At the end of the five sessions participants had to create a single document on paper, documenting the work done throughout the workshops, particularly the selected photos scanned and discussed by each participant.

This exercise documented the life history of the participants. They also produced a paper dossier of the geographical descriptions and the outstanding features of the municipality and the town of Pamplona. This was supported with photos and comments that have been developed during the workshop sessions.

This was later distributed among all workshop participants as a dossier entitled "Life history of women members of women's associations in Pamplona". This file contained all the images that have been scanned, with a caption that explains each photo. During the final integration of the documents and the proofreading of texts we have encountered messages of love, fun trivia, happy and painful moments of their life. We were very appreciative to the participants for having had the courage to share them and to enrich us with this reality.

All workshop sessions have been recorded, to record how the participants performed the activities and collected oral testimony of the history of each participant. Oral sources are slowly being reclaimed as an essential tool for the study of contemporary history Bertaux, This has been reconstructed through the stories and experiences that have emerged over the debates and discussion groups, workshops and further developed by the interviews we had with women in their municipality.

These represented a benchmark on the traditions and work of women in this part of the world. The recording of specific sessions that show the initiation, development and outcomes of the workshops has been taken. They have also recorded displays that women have in the classroom of traditional crafts made in the municipality. They have also recorded images of people. The collection of materials has been assembled in order to create an audio-visual document witnessing the work of women throughout the development of the workshops, a testimony and impressions of each participant of the experience of working with new technologies.

To complete the training process we organized a final meeting, based at the University of Pamplona, were the leadership of the University and representatives of the mayor were invited. This gave the participants visibility while disseminating the results of the project and the work of these women. It opened a public space where workshop participants had the opportunity to have and bear witness to the experience they have lived.

It was very important for all participants in the workshops, seeing their work reflected in a public act, to feel valued and appreciated for their efforts. Through this digital historical documentation in the context of recovery of historical memory these participants have produced a product of great value for the whole population. Empowerment The empowerment of women has been observed in the change of discourse.

As the sessions progressed one could observe these women building their confidence, leaving behind their fears and shame to deal with issues such as abuse and poverty. From a position of victim one could notice how some, in recent games, had claimed the courage to face difficulties without the need to have a man to sustain them.

Conclusions Today, thanks to information and media technologies it is possible, to get the message out from and to other areas of society. The existence of a macro- release process, promoting an overall change in the social structure gives women new opportunities to promote their ideas and slowly decrease the discrimination that so far women have had to live.

This awareness helps women to open up to new discourse and deal with questions that bring about a change in attitude towards their abilities and role in relation to social change. While there is still a lot of work to be done since this attitude is rooted in their personality, we recognize that this experience has given them the opportunity to think and rethink positions and conventions. They have felt valued by the reflection group and have felt the importance of their work in society. Through the sharing of personal experiences they have felt less alone and through the recognition of their achievements they have strengthened their self- esteem.

They have dared to recount their stories, denounce injustice, laugh at themselves, mourn, surf the net and see a bit of the world. Bibliography AAVV. Revista del Postgrado Multidisciplinario en Ciencias del Desarrollo. La Paz Nov. BOIX, M. Pixel Bit. Gender, Technology and Development. Numero: Arola Ed. VI Congreso de la Cibersociedad Revista venezolana de estudios de la mujer, Caracas, enero - junio , vol. Editor Kumarian Press.

London: Free Association. Poder y empoderamiento de las mujeres. El aprendizaje de las personas mayores ante los retos del nuevo milenio. Organizaciones de mujeres, redes y TIC. TOM, W. Women politicians receive more coverage of their appearance and family, and less coverage of their position on issues than do male politicians. Media should be aware of this fact. This paper presents a guidelines for a non sexist representation of women politicians in the media addressed to the media, the journalist professional associations and departments of communication studies in the universities.

Keywords: Women politicians, media representation, guidelines 1. Introduction Different studies point out that while the entrance of female politicians into the political sphere is becoming more frequent, gender biases disseminated by the media are still significant see Kittilson and Fridkin Because the media have become the public sphere in which the identity of the politician is constructed see Ross , those gender biases can have electoral consequences. Although some disparities exist between the different studies analyzing the relationship between gender and the news coverage a politician receives, there is a significant amount of research that suggests that the press covers men and women politicians differently.

Visibility and Quality of the Coverage Earlier studies concluded that male politicians usually receive more press attention than women Kahn , , ; Kahn and Goldenberg ; Norris ; Scharrer ; Serini, Powers and Johnson For example, Norris found that female Prime Ministers and Presidents received a smaller amount of press coverage in the week after their election than did equivalent male leaders.

Quantity is important because if women receive less coverage they may enjoy less name recognition Jalalzai ; Kahn and Goldenberg , and the politicians who have less coverage are less likely to be recognized and be supported by the polls Kahn But even if women do not receive less coverage than men, quality of coverage may differ. Different researches have found that women politicians are more likely to be identified in spousal or parental roles than men Banwart, Bystrom and Robertson ; Falk , the press coverage is more likely to focus on how women look and what they wear than do reports of men politicians, and media are more likely to focus on the age of a woman politician than a male politician Braden ; Bystrom, Robertson and Banwart ; Falk ; Fernandez Falk also suggests that women are more likely to have their professional background dropped in news stories, so they are shown with less experience.

Earlier studies define traits as stereotypically masculine or feminine: traits associated with leadership would be stereotypically masculine and traits associated with expressive personality traits would be stereotypically feminine see Carroll y Fox ; Kahn , ; Kittison and Fridkin 1. It is suggested that male traits dominate coverage of male candidates; whereas, these traits are discussed less often for female politicians.

Findings of studies using this methodology suggest that men are more likely to be associated with positive traits and women are more likely to be associated with negative traits Fernandez ; Miller, Peake and Boulton In relation to the number of statements made by male and female politicians represented in the news, according to Falk , quotations are one vehicle by which the press can give voters direct information about politicians and politicians are eager to get direct access to citizens.

Finally, studies on gender stereotypes and female politicians have shown that, when a woman oversteps traditional boundaries the media react by covering her more negatively Fernandez ; Kahn ; Kahn and Goldenberg ; Scharrer In line with the above considerations and in accordance with current legislation, the following guidelines are addressed especially to the media: 1.

With respect to the visibility of women politicians, media shall a. Ensure a balanced and equal women and men visibility in the political information content. Ensure a balanced representation of men and women when selecting guests and partners in talk shows and political debates. Adequately reflect women presence in the different areas of political life. Include women in the headlines of news in the context of decision making policies that are part.

In terms of personal life, media shall a. Avoid any stereotyped reference or comment about women appearance. With respect to gender, media shall a. Avoid highlight the gender of women politicians as it can convey the idea of surprise by the success of a woman. Describe women in gender neutral terms, avoiding to place women politicians as women first and then as politicians.

Regarding the association with male figures, media shall a. Avoid the idea of women subordination by associationg their merits to their relationship with a male figure. Refrain from using a patronizing tone when describing the relationship of women politicians with other male politicians or relevant male figures.

In relation to the name of the politician, media shall a. Avoid treating women politicians with familiarity eg. With respect to quotations, media shall a. Show political reality reflecting the diversity of views of both women and men politicians. Encourage the use of direct quotation by female politicians in the same way that the media reflect the quotes of male politicians.

In terms of issues, media shall a. Ensure women politicians to get as much coverage on political issues as their male counterparts. Naturally assume the presence of men and women in all areas of political responsibility. Avoid the gender attribution — explicitly or implicityly — of capacities for the exercise of politics, because that suggests a lack of competence of women to exercise some of them.

In relation to the personal traits and the coverage tone, media shall a. Avoid differentiating between men and women using sterotypical charactersitics traditionally linked to a specific gender. Refrain from using stereotypical personaity traits that imply a discriminatory assessment or an attribution of predetermined and differentiated women roles to those of men.

Avoid simplifying and trivailizing the achievements of women politicians. Adopt professional codes and guidelines focused on gender sensibilization to improve coverage and representation of women politicians in a not stereotyped way. Introduce and promote gender mainstreaming in the curriculum of communnication studies and teach students about legislation, codes and existing professional guidelines wich addresss gender equality.

In relation to the follow-up of the women politicians coverage, it is recommended to a. Political Research Quarterly, Vol. Holmes and M. Marra ed. American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. Women politicians and the media. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. FALK, E. Women for President: Media bias in eight campaigns.

Madrid: Editorial Fragua. KAHN, K. Journal of Politics, Vol. The political consequences of being a woman: How stereotypes influence the conduct and consequences of political campaigns. New York: Columbia University Press. The Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. Gender Politics and the Media on the Campaign Trail.

Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers. Norris ed. New York: Oxford University Press. ROSS, K. Framed: Women, politics and news media in a general election climate. Coventry: Centre for Communication, Culture and Media. Journalism Studies, Vol. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. Canadian Journal of Political Science, Vol. European Journal of Cultural Studies, Vol. WITT, L. The starting point of this project is the intercultural dialogue that takes place between Thai and American youth through mediated forms of communication.

Dialogue will be approached as a relational pedagogic strategy through which individuals communicate and interact with each other cross- culturally through verbal and non-verbal language, symbols and images. Close attention will be addressed to the role of media as cultural references for youth worldwide and the pedagogic value of popular culture to learn about the relationship between culture and identity, place and space, social and political discourses, and the power relations embedded in systems of representation.

In the first section of the project, deconstruction the interrogation of knowledge will be used as a media literacy strategy to problematize cultural representations and ask how the latter are produced, transmitted and perpetuated. The music videos will be investigated as both contact zones Pratt, for intercultural dialogue between the east and the west and spaces where western- centric discourses bring forward forms of cultural imperialism.

The second part of the project involves the participatory youth culture of YouTube and its role in promoting intercultural dialogue in horizontal and non institutionalized ways. Production will be used as a media literacy strategy to teach about the importance of being self reflexive in knowledge production, bringing in different worldviews and organizing the learning process collectively and in more personal and meaningful ways.

Media Literacy and the Study of Culture Before proceeding with the analysis of our case studies and showing the potential of media literacy to foster intercultural dialogue via the products of media and pop culture, it is important to acknowledge the frameworks used for this project. To speak of dialogue between cultures one must first understand the meaning of culture and of dialogue and investigate the power relationships invested in inter- cultural communications.

This paper maintains that critical media literacy is one strategy to learn about intercultural communications and understand the shared signs that make up the meaning systems of our culture. It is constructed, produced. In line with Hall, culture is envisioned in this paper as a hybrid space of social struggles where multiple culture genres clash and meaning is continually negotiated and created. Signifying practices and systems of representations construct the cultures we live in.

Sharing and exchanging cultural codes across countries through mediated forms of communication, appropriating and understanding them collectively is what allows intercultural communication to take place. In this paper we will explore the codes exported from United States to Thailand and shared cross-culturally by Thai people.

The study of popular culture blends the pleasurable experience of reading and making art, and learning about the signs that build up our cultures. Applying media literacy strategies to the process allows us to critically analyse how the narratives, systems of representations and soundtracks of media productions reiterate or shape and transform cultural conventions.

The song was rated by MTV one of the best songs of and gained commercial success worldwide. In this section of the paper we look closely at the signs and signifying practices in our case study and the role they play in intercultural communications. The purpose for interrogating what is being shown by the media and the entertainment industry is that in media culture nothing is casual.

Careful decisions, scripts and rules legitimize who is allowed to exercise power and who is not, who may speak and who must be silenced, which codes of behavior are validated or invalidated. To proceed with our scrupulous interrogation, the questions kept in mind throughout the media literacy analysis were the following:! What is the role of media messages?

Who paid for the media? Whose interests are promoted? Which storytelling techniques are used? In which context is the media message produced? Is the media message trustworthy? Are media representations harmful? What are their social effects? How do they influence audience reception? Whose stories are being told? Who gets to speak? Who is the media representing? Who is being targeted?

Who is spoken? Before tracing the links between east and west, one must acknowledge that this music video is already in itself a product of intercultural communication. This visual autobiography is intercultural in its text, music genre and cultural references, but also because of its fame, wide international distribution and outreach. After closely analyzing the video in its totality, we extracted cultural codes considered problematic and investigated the implications of exporting and sharing them cross- culturally.

The music video Empire State of Mind opens with black and white picture shots of iconic places in New York that follow the music beat. In this case, Jay- Z transforms New York into the symbol for United States, modernity, western civilization and progress.

It is not the purpose of this paper to investigate in depth the politics of gender, sexuality, racism and identity in hip-hop culture; however, the work of Patricia Hill Collins , Jason Kratz, Sut Jhally, Byron Hurt and those who investigated the relationship between gender, media, culture and identity were relevant to our analysis.

As Elaine Richardson maintains, Commercial rap videos provide a dissemination of hegemonic images of black youth culture throughout the world. These images are decontextualized from their roots in slavery and its legacy of racial rule, and are repackaged by mass media and pop culture, helping to reproduce the hegemonic ideologies and replicate social inequality.

We acknowledge that such performances shape culture and identity and support a white capitalist patriarchal order that fosters social inequalities and is indeed problematic cross- culturally. As a prerogative of hip hop, in Empire State of Mind, Jay-Z seems to address his song more likely to young males even if the duet with pop singer Alicia Keys makes the video also appealing to girls.

Through a critical analysis of the lyrics and the interpretation of the metaphors used by the singer, we are exposed to the recurrent themes in hip-hop culture. It is important to be critical and through media literacy eradicate from pop culture these themes in that they are the values and codes of behavior that are being promoted as glamorous by the entertainment industries, exported worldwide and transformed into cultural norms and common sense.

These are the codes that the youth appropriate, share and understand; this is the content of intercultural communications in the twenty first century. Da Endorphine The aim is to put the east and the west in conversation and understand to what extent the exchange and sharing of cultural codes may be considered intercultural dialogue or a form of cultural imperialism.

As the logo fades in the sky, notorious areas of the city start being captured by the camera. The famous sky train running through the Sukhumvit Road, skyscrapers, malls and fountains, the Chaopraya River that traverses the city and a colour picture of the Giant Swing are in the foreground accompanied by an orchestral rhythm.

Thirty seconds later, the three singers enter in row one after the other from the right side of the frame. If we decontextualize this scene from the video, it would be hard to tell that the shooting took place in Bangkok. In these only thirty seconds, several codes from the west may be tracked through a media literacy lens.

First of all, it is clear that Thaitanium appropriate the stylistic format and orchestral music genre used in Empire State of Mind. Secondly, one must question the choice of prioritizing cultural references such as skyscrapers, malls and the sky train running on the Sukhumvit Road over symbols that are better representatives of Bangkok and Thailand.

May we consider this eastern- western interaction as intercultural dialogue? Para esta fase, es necesario en primer lugar identificar el campo en el que se produce el buffer overflow. Siempre para asegurar es mejor mandarle los caracteres siguientes de nuestro reporte. Lo que hace que inmediatamente veamos los caracteres a los que corresponden dichos valores. Conociendo ya el offset, podemos tomar el control del registro EIP. Dado que el offset es , podemos crear el siguiente PoC a fin de verificar que tenemos el control del registro EIP :.

El caracter "C" lo meto como Padding para hacer relleno hasta llegar a los para trabajar con cifras redondas. Llegados a este punto, es hora de encontrar el lugar en el que situar nuestro Shellcode. A la hora de hacer Padding con el caracter "C" tras sobrescribir previamente el registro EIP , podremos ver desde el Immunity Debugger como el registro ESP coincide con nuestro relleno.

Modificamos para ello el script de la siguiente forma:. En caso de ver desde Immunity Debugger que todo figura como lo esperado, podremos quedarnos tranquilos, pues tenemos espacio suficiente para depositar nuestro Shellcode sobre el registro ESP. Para ello, seguimos la siguiente sintaxis:. Arreglaremos esto en el siguiente punto. De esta forma, nos aprovecharemos de msfvenom para generar una sentencia como la siguiente:. Como vemos, en este caso en hemos pasado de bytes a bytes.

El recurso lo podemos encontrar en el siguiente enlace. Adaptamos un poco el exploit a nuestras necesidades:. Para este caso, nos dan un PoC con el offset calculado. Para empezar, iniciamos edb con el programa corriendo, de la siguiente forma:.

Pulsamos la tecla F9 2 veces y mandamos el buffer desde consola. Desde edb , podremos observar la siguiente respuesta:. Teniendo estos valores que han sobreescrito el EIP , calculamos el Offset:. Sabiendo ya que su valor es , montamos el siguiente PoC para corroborar que tomamos el control del EIP :.

Obviamente, hacemos relleno con el caracter C a fin de alcanzar los bytes. Obtenemos la siguiente respuesta desde edb tras enviar nuestro Buffer:. Si atendemos al registro EAX , una vez se produce el desbordamiento de buffer, vemos que apunta justo al principio de nuestro Buffer:.

Recodemos que contamos con un margen de 7 bytes para definir nuestras instrucciones, donde una de ellas es el salto al registro EAX que pretendemos hacer para posteriormente situar nuestro Shellcode. Pinchamos en Find y esperamos a que el programa encuentre las direcciones donde se realizan el salto al registro ESP.

Correspondiente a los 7 bytes finales de margen que tenemos donde por el momento se encuentran situados nuestro caracter C. Surge un problema a la hora de saltar al registro EAX , y es que la cadena ' setup sound ' es interpretada como Opcode :. Esto puede causar inconvenientes, pues el flujo del programa como vemos puede tomar saltos a otras direcciones no deseadas haciendo que posteriormente nuestro Shellcode no sea interpretado.

Yo generalmente suelo seguir estos pasos. Este escaneo no engloba todos los puertos, y probablemente nos estemos saltando algunos interesantes que escapen de este escaneo. En caso de figurar un servicio HTTP corriendo bajo un puerto, podemos aprovecharnos del script http-enum.

Sobre el servicio FTP resulta interesante comprobar que podamos subir archivos. Puede llegar a pasar que el servicio no se encuentre corriendo sobre el puerto , en ese caso podemos hacer uso de la herramienta mssql. Generalmente suele ser public , pero por si acaso, nos montamos un ligero diccionario:. Una vez creado, utilizamos onesixtyone para bruteforcear la Community String del servicio:. Un paso fundamental a la hora de logar RCE es tener controlados los tipos de conexiones reversas que podemos entablar en distintos lenguajes.

Desde Linux, a la hora de compilar algunos de los exploits que figuren en Searchsploit generalmente en C , aplicaremos el siguiente comando:. De entre algunas de las funcionalidades que esta utilidad tiene, destaca:. Una vez hecho, con acceder directamente a la IP, si esta cuenta con un servicio web por el puerto convencional la veremos directamente desde el navegador. Aplicamos el siguiente comando para instalar pry-byebug :. Este exploit, cuenta con las siguientes configuraciones:.

Este exploit, cuenta con un ligero problema y es que para el caso aplicado, el valor de DEPTH debe valer 0, y por defecto tras setearlo mantiene su valor de 10, lo que hace que el exploit no funcione correctamente. Como vemos, el valor de la variable levels es.. Este exploit contaba con otras ligeras modificaciones a hacer, pero con esto ya queda claro la funcionalidad del pry-byebug.

La utilidad de este procedimiento, es que desde Metasploit a la hora de lanzar cualquier exploit, podemos configurar como IP nuestra IP local Esta vulnerabilidad nos permite visualizar recursos del sistema efectuando para ello un Directory Path Transversal. Suponiendo que el fichero se llama file.

Podemos evadir dicho problema haciendo lo siguiente:. Esto es, codificamos los datos por primera vez:. Para el caso del recurso access. De esta forma, tras visualizar el recurso access. Ahora que sabemos que el usuario www-data existe, podemos hacer lo siguiente:. Una vez localizada la tabla que nos interese para este caso, la tabla usuarios , enumeramos las columnas existentes para dicha tabla en la base de datos:.

Obtendremos los siguientes resultados:. En caso de querer ejecutar comandos sobre el sistema, podemos aprovechar que desde consultas sql se pueden exportar archivos para generar el nuestro malicioso. Esta vulnerabilidad la he llegado a probar en 2 entornos. De esta forma, creando el usuario lo que conseguiremos es crear una instancia de dicho usuario con las mismas propiedades, viendo todo su contenido a posteriori como si se tratara del usuario admin.

Seguimos la siguiente sintaxis:. Lo que obtendremos una vez todo el proceso se realice correctamente es un Output como el siguiente desde la herramienta:. En ocasiones, podremos enumerar los usuarios existentes sobre el gestor, empleando para ello la siguiente sintaxis:. Esto se consigue con la siguiente sintaxis:. Pero esto dice mucho de nosotros, vamos a mejorar un poco las cosas. En caso de querer ejecutar comandos personalizados desde la URL, podemos definir una estructura como la siguiente:.

Para depositar archivos sobre el sistema aprovechando la variable ' fupload ', necesitaremos compartir un servidor con Python perviamente sobre el directorio cuyos recursos queramos depositar sobre el equipo remoto. Habiendo previamente subido el binario nc. Esto es simplemente renombrar nuestro script php a shell.

En caso de analizar el Content en la subida de archivo, podemos bypassearla de la siguiente forma:. Posteriormente, es necesario renombar el archivo imagen. Una vez hecho, tras subir la imagen, podremos apuntar a ella jugando con la variable cmd posteriormente para ejecutar comandos en remoto sobre el sistema desde la URL.

En caso de existir en el directorio de subida, la idea es poder sobreescribir su contenido. En caso de no existir, es simplemente rezar y esperar que no exista otro en un directorio padre. Supongamos que tras subir un archivo XML, la web nos muestra el siguiente Output:.

De la siguiente forma:. Una vez accedemos a un equipo Linux con una reverse shell de Netcat, veremos que andamos a ciegas, lo que hace que incluso no podamos utilizar servicios que corran en interactivo Python, mysql, etc. Una vez hecho, aplicamos los siguientes comandos:. Abrimos otra terminal en nuestro sistema con el mismo redimensionamiento, y aplicamos el siguiente comando:. A la hora de escalar privilegios, es una buena idea montarse un script procmon.

Para el primer caso, seguimos los siguientes pasos para preparar nuestro escenario de usuario:. Con la misma, el usuario se ha escapado a una bash , teniendo mayor movilidad sobre el sistema. Como vemos, el usuario testuser no puede visualizar el recurso.

De esta forma, dado que la variable PATH figura sobre dicho directorio, puede hacer que el binario ping tome una nueva funcionalidad, donde como vemos, se aprovecha de la misma para visualizar el recurso. Una vez ve que el problema radica en dicho recurso, puede aplicar el siguiente movimiento lateral:.

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Hola a todos, despues de haber leido mucha info sobre esta aplicacion y de descargarme la version 1. Alguien conoce esta version? Un saludo. Hola a todos, es un programa muy bueno, pero al conectarme al pc remoto este cambia su fondo de pantalla, en mi caso no quiero que eso suceda, pueden ayudarme?

Oye estoy manejando un centro de computo y el anterior manejador de centro de computo perdio los passwords de entrar a las maquinas, como las cambio y aplico estos cambio, porque lo hago por edit setting y los cambios no se aplican, ya que cuando trato de entrar a la maquina que cambie el password la misma me dice password incorrecto, que puedo hacer para cambiar el password.

En mi trabajo instalaron VNC pero nadie aviso ni pidio autorizacion es esto legal??? Espero su respuesta. La pregunta es: como hago para poder ver ambas maquinas? Hola a todos, Que tengo que activar para visualizar el fondo de escritorio original y que no cambie? Oct 6 Julian 4 noviembre a las Porque lo que busco es que la maquina remota se conecte a mi computadora para que tenga internet Bueno espero respondas pronto!!!

Un saludo, Alejandro Arco. Juan Alerio 9 enero a las Saludos Juan AL. Inma 22 enero a las Inma 28 enero a las Jozzman 27 febrero a las JOhann 27 febrero a las JOhann 1 marzo a las Alejandro Ortega 6 marzo a las Saludos y Agradesco de antemano Es buen articulo y el programa funciona muy bien Solo tengo una pregunta : 1.

No conocia esto de administracion remota muy bueno estas aplicaciones. Juan Duarte 13 marzo a las JOhann 29 marzo a las Bandido 23 abril a las Gerardo 24 abril a las Zelfo 8 mayo a las Muy buen tema muchas gracias, estoy bajandolo ya. Que buen soft…. Sileny 3 julio a las Daphne 15 julio a las Cozu 9 septiembre a las Me gusta esto: Me gusta Cargando Buen manual… Sabes como configurar el passwrod para que se base en el windows logon?

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